Concept of Lifelong Learning in the Restaurant Business:
The restaurant business is a dynamic and highly competitive industry that demands continuous adaptation and innovation. In such a rapidly changing environment, lifelong learning becomes a critical element for both individual professionals and businesses within the sector. This article explores the concept of lifelong learning in the restaurant business and delves into the various types of training, educational institutions, and training programs that play a pivotal role in sustaining and improving the industry.
Section 1: Importance of Lifelong Learning in the Restaurant Business:
Lifelong learning is the process of acquiring knowledge, skills, and competencies throughout one’s life. In the restaurant business, it is essential due to several factors:
1.1 Evolving Consumer Preferences: Consumer preferences in the culinary world are in a constant state of flux. What was trendy and sought after one year may not be the next. Diners today are more adventurous, health-conscious, and culturally diverse in their culinary tastes. Restaurants must continuously adjust their menus, ingredients, and culinary techniques to meet these changing demands. Lifelong learning equips restaurant staff with the knowledge and skills to stay ahead of these evolving preferences, ensuring that they can create exciting and appealing dishes that keep customers coming back.
1.2 Health and Safety Regulations: The restaurant industry is subject to strict health and safety regulations. These regulations are in place to protect the well-being of customers by ensuring that food is prepared, handled, and served safely. Staying compliant with these rules is not a one-time event but an ongoing process. Lifelong learning ensures that employees are up-to-date with the latest food safety standards, hygiene practices, and health regulations. This knowledge is essential in preventing foodborne illnesses, accidents, and maintaining the restaurant’s reputation.
1.3 Employee Retention and Satisfaction: Lifelong learning provides employees with opportunities for personal and professional growth. This can have a profound impact on their job satisfaction and commitment to their workplace. When restaurants invest in the development of their staff, employees feel valued, empowered, and more likely to stay with the organization. Reducing turnover not only saves on recruitment and training costs but also creates a more experienced and loyal workforce. This, in turn, enhances the overall quality of service provided to customers.
1.4 Competitive Edge: In a highly competitive industry, a well-trained staff can make all the difference. Restaurants with highly skilled chefs, servers, bartenders, and other staff members are better equipped to deliver exceptional dining experiences. Skillful professionals can craft innovative and high-quality dishes, provide exceptional service, and create a welcoming ambiance. These factors can set a restaurant apart from its competitors, attracting a loyal customer base and ensuring long-term success.
Lifelong learning is an essential component of success in the restaurant business. With ever-evolving consumer preferences, stringent health and safety regulations, and the need for employee retention and satisfaction, restaurants that invest in ongoing education and training are better positioned to adapt, thrive, and maintain a competitive edge in this dynamic industry. Lifelong learning is not merely a choice but a necessity for both individual professionals and businesses operating in the restaurant sector.
Section 2: Types of Training in the Restaurant Business:
To facilitate lifelong learning in the restaurant business, various types of training programs can be employed:
2.1 General Training:
- Description: General training is designed to provide foundational knowledge and skills that are universally applicable across various roles within a restaurant. It aims to instill basic competencies that all employees need to perform their jobs effectively.
- Topics Covered: General training may encompass a wide range of topics, including customer service, communication skills, teamwork, problem-solving, time management, and hygiene and safety protocols.
- Purpose: The primary purpose of general training is to ensure that all employees have a common understanding of the fundamental principles and practices that underpin the restaurant’s operations. It promotes consistency in service and operational standards across the establishment.
2.2 Departmental Training:
- Description: Departmental training is tailored to the specific roles within the restaurant. It focuses on role-specific skills, responsibilities, and knowledge required for different positions.
- Topics Covered: Training content varies according to the department. For example, chefs may receive culinary training, servers may learn about guest service and menu items, and bartenders may focus on mixology and drink preparation.
- Purpose: The purpose of departmental training is to equip employees with the expertise needed to excel in their respective roles. It ensures that they are knowledgeable and skilled in performing the tasks specific to their positions.
2.3 Specialized Training:
- Description: Specialized training is intended to enhance expertise in niche areas of the restaurant business. This training is typically focused on specific skills or knowledge that can set the restaurant apart and cater to unique customer demands.
- Topics Covered: Specialized training can include wine pairing, pastry making, cocktail crafting, sommelier certification, and other advanced culinary or beverage skills.
- Purpose: Specialized training provides employees with specialized skills to excel in specific roles or to cater to a particular niche market. It allows the restaurant to offer unique and high-quality products or services.
2.4 Individual Training:
- Description: Individual training is personalized to meet the unique needs and goals of each employee. It is often tailored to address specific areas for improvement or to harness an employee’s strengths
- Topics Covered: Individual training may include one-on-one coaching, skill assessments, and setting individualized learning plans based on performance reviews.
- Purpose: The purpose of individual training is to provide targeted support to employees, helping them reach their full potential. It can address weaknesses and build on strengths, contributing to overall professional growth.
2.5 Cross Training:
- Description: Cross training involves exposing employees to tasks and responsibilities outside their primary roles. Employees are trained to perform functions that are different from their usual job responsibilities.
- Topics Covered: Cross training may involve learning the basics of other roles within the restaurant. For instance, a server might receive training in food preparation and cooking.
- Purpose: Cross training broadens employees’ skill sets, makes them more versatile, and prepares them to step in and cover various roles when necessary. It is especially valuable in smaller restaurants where staff may need to wear multiple hats.
2.6 Computer Training:
- Description: In an era of increasing technological integration in restaurants, computer training is crucial. This type of training focuses on using and managing technology systems commonly found in restaurants.
- Topics Covered: Computer training may include the use of point-of-sale systems, inventory management software, reservation systems, and other restaurant-specific software.
- Purpose: The purpose of computer training is to ensure that employees can efficiently use the technology tools and systems in place. This not only streamlines operations but also enhances the accuracy and efficiency of tasks.
2.7 Group Training:
- Description: Group training sessions bring employees together to learn collectively. These sessions can encompass a variety of team-based activities and discussions.
- Topics Covered: Group training may include team-building exercises, conflict resolution training, group problem-solving activities, and discussions on customer service best practices.
- Purpose: The purpose of group training is to foster teamwork, communication, and a sense of camaraderie among employees. It helps in building a cohesive and productive work environment.
The types of training in the restaurant business are diverse and serve various purposes. Whether it’s imparting foundational knowledge, honing specialized skills, or promoting teamwork and collaboration, these training programs are integral to the success of restaurants and their ability to meet the ever-changing demands of the industry.
Section 3: Educational Institutions and Training Programs:
Educational institutions play a significant role in providing structured training programs for individuals looking to enter the restaurant business or further their careers. Training methods within these institutions can vary, including:
3.1 Lecture-Based Training:
- Description: Lecture-based training is a traditional classroom-style approach where instructors convey information through lectures, discussions, and presentations. It is primarily used for imparting theoretical knowledge and principles.
- Applicability: Lecture-based training is suitable for teaching subjects such as culinary theory, food safety regulations, nutrition, and menu planning. It is an effective method for delivering a foundational understanding of concepts.
3.2 Demonstration-Based Training:
- Description: Demonstration-based training is highly effective in the restaurant business. Instructors, often experienced chefs or industry professionals, demonstrate practical skills, such as cooking techniques, plating, table service procedures, and bartending practices. Students then replicate these demonstrations.
- Applicability: Demonstration-based training is especially valuable for hands-on skills like food preparation, presentation, and guest service. It allows learners to observe and practice techniques under the guidance of experts.
- Description: Role-playing involves trainees simulating real-life scenarios in a controlled environment. In the restaurant business, this might include role-playing as customers, servers, chefs, or managers, and practicing interactions, problem-solving, and decision-making.
- Applicability: Role-playing is effective for developing practical skills and interpersonal abilities. It helps employees prepare for diverse customer interactions, handle challenging situations, and build confidence in their roles.
3.4 Games and Simulations:
- Description: Games and simulations make learning enjoyable and engaging. In the restaurant business, this might involve virtual simulations that replicate kitchen environments, dining rooms, or customer interactions. Learners can practice procedures, problem-solving, and decision-making in a risk-free, interactive setting.
- Applicability: Games and simulations are effective for teaching and reinforcing skills related to food safety, service, time management, and critical thinking. They can make learning more fun and immersive.
3.5 Professional Trainers:
- Description: Educational institutions often bring in professional trainers from the restaurant industry to provide real-world insights and hands-on experience. These trainers may include experienced chefs, sommeliers, or industry experts who offer mentorship and practical instruction.
- Applicability: Learning directly from professionals in the field is invaluable for developing industry-specific skills. Students gain firsthand knowledge, learn about industry best practices, and can build valuable connections within the industry.
Educational institutions employ a diverse range of training methods to prepare individuals for success in the restaurant business. These methods cater to different learning styles and help students and professionals acquire the knowledge, skills, and experience needed to excel in various roles within the industry. Whether it’s through traditional lectures, hands-on demonstrations, role-playing, immersive simulations, or guidance from industry experts, these training methods ensure that the restaurant workforce is well-equipped to meet the demands and challenges of the dynamic culinary and hospitality sector.
Section 4: Training Programs for Restaurant Business:
Training programs in the restaurant business are tailored to specific job roles. The following is a breakdown of training programs for various positions within a restaurant:
4.1 Training for Managers:
- Description: Managers are crucial to restaurant operations, as they oversee various aspects of the business. Training for managers encompasses a wide range of skills and knowledge, including leadership, financial management, human resources, inventory control, and customer relations.
- Topics Covered: Leadership and team management, budgeting and financial analysis, staff recruitment and development, inventory management, customer service strategies, crisis management, and legal compliance.
- Purpose: Managerial training prepares individuals to lead and operate a restaurant efficiently, manage a team effectively, handle customer relations, and make strategic decisions to achieve business goals.
4.2 Orientation Training:
- Description: Orientation training is typically the first step for new employees, providing them with an introduction to the restaurant’s history, culture, policies, and procedures. It helps newcomers acclimate to their new workplace.
- Topics Covered: Restaurant history, mission, values, organizational structure, company policies (e.g., dress code, attendance, ethics), safety protocols, and an overview of job roles.
- Purpose: Orientation training ensures that new employees understand the restaurant’s mission and expectations, which is essential for creating a consistent and welcoming work environment.
4.3 Bartender Training:
- Description: Bartender training is focused on equipping individuals with the knowledge and skills required for bartending, which includes cocktail preparation, drink recipes, responsible alcohol service, and customer engagement.
- Topics Covered: Mixology techniques, drink recipes, alcohol laws and regulations, customer service, handling difficult situations (e.g., over-intoxicated patrons), and maintaining a clean bar area.
- Purpose: Bartender training enables individuals to create quality cocktails, provide exceptional service, and ensure responsible alcohol service to enhance the customer experience.
4.4 Server Training:
- Description: Server training is designed to prepare individuals for the front-of-house role, where they interact directly with customers. It covers customer service, menu knowledge, order-taking, and etiquette.
- Topics Covered: Customer service etiquette, menu knowledge, order-taking and POS systems, wine and beverage pairing, handling customer inquiries and concerns.
- Purpose: Server training ensures that employees can provide excellent service, enhancing the overall dining experience for customers. It also equips them with the knowledge to upsell and make menu recommendations.
4.5 Host/Hostess Training:
- Description: Hosts and hostesses are responsible for creating the first impression for restaurant guests. Training includes greeting and seating guests, managing reservations, and handling waiting lists.
- Topics Covered: Greeting and seating protocols, reservation management, waiting list procedures, customer service etiquette.
- Purpose: Host/hostess training ensures a warm and welcoming environment, efficient table turnover, and a positive first impression for restaurant patrons.
4.6 Bus Person Training:
- Description: Bus persons are responsible for clearing and resetting tables, maintaining the cleanliness and organization of the dining area, and assisting servers.
- Topics Covered: Table clearing and resetting techniques, timing and coordination with the kitchen, teamwork with servers, maintaining cleanliness and organization.
- Purpose: Bus person training ensures efficient and timely table turnover, helping to create a smooth dining experience for customers.
4.7 Pizza Cook Training:
- Description: Pizza cook training focuses on preparing and baking pizzas. It covers dough preparation, sauce making, baking techniques, and knowledge of different pizza styles and flavor profiles.
- Topics Covered: Dough preparation and tossing, sauce and topping application, pizza oven operation, baking techniques, managing pizza orders and timing.
- Purpose: Pizza cook training ensures that employees can consistently create high-quality and delicious pizzas, a staple of many restaurants.
4.8 Cook Training:
- Description: Cook training encompasses various culinary techniques, food safety protocols, and preparation of menu items. Fine dining establishments may provide more extensive training in gourmet cuisine.
- Topics Covered: Culinary techniques (e.g., knife skills, sautéing, grilling), food safety and sanitation, menu item preparation, presentation, and plating.
- Purpose: Cook training equips individuals with the skills and knowledge needed to prepare dishes accurately, maintain food safety standards, and create visually appealing plates, contributing to a positive dining experience.
4.9 Dishwasher Training:
- Description: Dishwashers play a critical role in maintaining kitchen hygiene. Training covers the operation of dishwashing equipment, proper dish handling, and sanitation procedures.
- Topics Covered: Operation of dishwashing equipment, dish stacking and handling, sanitation practices, understanding cleaning chemicals and their safe use.
- Purpose: Dishwasher training ensures the cleanliness and sanitation of kitchen equipment and utensils, contributing to food safety and the overall reputation of the restaurant.
Training programs tailored to various positions within a restaurant are essential for equipping employees with the skills, knowledge, and expertise needed to perform their roles effectively. These programs contribute to the success of the restaurant by ensuring that employees provide exceptional service, maintain high standards of hygiene and safety, and meet customer expectations.
Section 5: Benefits of Lifelong Learning and Training in the Restaurant Business:
Lifelong learning and training offer numerous advantages to individuals and businesses in the restaurant industry:
5.1 Improved Skills: Imagine a chef, who, through continuous training and education, hones their culinary skills, learning to expertly balance flavors, master intricate cooking techniques, and create visually stunning dishes. This chef’s finely tuned skills translate into artful and delicious plates that leave diners raving about their dining experience. Similarly, consider the servers, bartenders, and managers who are well-versed in their roles, offering prompt and attentive service. Their ability to handle customer requests with grace and professionalism elevates the entire dining experience. In a restaurant with a staff of highly skilled individuals, patrons can expect consistently excellent meals and top-notch service, ensuring their return and the restaurant’s long-term success.
5.2 Employee Satisfaction: Picture a scenario where restaurant employees are not only enthusiastic about their jobs but are also excited about opportunities for personal and professional growth. In this environment, training programs are designed to empower employees, boosting their morale and overall job satisfaction. As a result, these individuals are not just employees; they are dedicated and motivated team members. They take pride in their work, feel valued, and are less likely to seek employment elsewhere. The reduced turnover rate leads to a stable, experienced staff, ultimately saving the restaurant money on recruitment and training costs. Employee satisfaction has a ripple effect, positively influencing the workplace atmosphere and, by extension, the customer experience.
5.3 Adaptation to Trends: Visualize a restaurant that embraces change, always staying ahead of culinary trends and customer preferences. This restaurant recognizes the importance of keeping its staff well-informed and adaptable. As new food fads emerge, such as plant-based dining or unique global flavors, the kitchen and service teams are not only aware of these shifts but are proficient in integrating them seamlessly into the menu. This adaptability ensures that the restaurant remains relevant and exciting, continually drawing in curious diners looking for fresh and innovative experiences. The ability to evolve with the times is a testament to the restaurant’s commitment to excellence.
5.4 Customer Satisfaction: Consider a bustling restaurant where each guest is greeted with a warm smile and attentive service. Servers are knowledgeable about the menu, can suggest perfect wine pairings, and address any dietary restrictions or allergies with confidence. Every dish is prepared to perfection, and customers revel in their culinary journeys. In such a scenario, the hallmark of the restaurant is customer satisfaction. Diners leave with not only full stomachs but also a sense of delight. They’re likely to return and share their positive experiences with friends and family, acting as ambassadors for the restaurant. These satisfied customers become the backbone of the establishment’s success.
5.5 Compliance and Safety: Envision a kitchen where every chef and kitchen staff member rigorously adheres to strict hygiene and food safety protocols. A restaurant that maintains meticulous records, undergoes regular health inspections without a hitch, and has a spotless track record when it comes to safety and sanitation. Here, the importance of ongoing training in health and safety regulations becomes evident. Compliance with these standards isn’t just about avoiding fines; it’s about safeguarding the well-being of customers and employees. This unwavering commitment to safety ensures that diners can trust that every meal they enjoy is not only delectable but also safe.
5.6 Innovation: Think about a restaurant where creativity is encouraged, and the staff is continuously inspired to experiment and invent. The chefs and bartenders have the freedom to explore new ingredients, flavors, and presentation techniques. This culture of innovation results in a constantly evolving menu, with exciting dishes that surprise and delight customers. It’s a restaurant that isn’t content with the status quo but strives to push the boundaries of culinary art. This innovative spirit attracts adventurous diners who are eager to experience something new and unique, making the restaurant a trendsetter in the industry.
5.7 Competitive Advantage: Imagine a crowded restaurant scene in a bustling city, with numerous dining options competing for the same customer base. In this fiercely competitive landscape, a restaurant stands out. Its staff is exceptionally skilled, its service impeccable, and its menu unparalleled in both flavor and presentation. This restaurant’s reputation for excellence is a distinguishing feature. It’s the place where people go for a truly memorable dining experience. This competitive advantage isn’t just about filling seats; it’s about creating a lasting presence in the market. It’s the difference between being just another restaurant and being the restaurant that everyone wants to experience.
Lifelong learning and training are not just initiatives in the restaurant business; they are essential investments in excellence. They lead to a staff of highly skilled, satisfied, and adaptable individuals who are committed to providing exceptional service, ensuring compliance and safety, fostering innovation, and establishing a competitive edge. These benefits collectively contribute to the restaurant’s success and longevity in a dynamic and competitive industry.
Section 6: Challenges in Implementing Lifelong Learning Programs:
While there are significant benefits to lifelong learning in the restaurant business, there are also challenges to consider:
6.1 Time Constraints: Picture a bustling restaurant during peak dining hours, with chefs working tirelessly in the kitchen, servers attending to tables, and bartenders crafting cocktails. In this fast-paced, demanding environment, finding time for additional training can be a daunting challenge. Restaurant schedules are often packed, with little room for interruptions. It becomes a juggling act for managers to balance training sessions with operational demands. The limited time available for training can result in rushed or inadequate sessions, preventing employees from truly absorbing and applying what they’ve learned.
6.2 High Turnover: Imagine a scenario where a restaurant invests time and resources in training its staff, only to see a significant portion of them leave for various reasons, from better opportunities to seasonal work fluctuations. This is a common occurrence in the restaurant industry, where employee turnover rates tend to be high. The constant influx of new hires requires a perpetual cycle of training, which can strain both the restaurant’s finances and its ability to maintain consistency in service and quality. The loss of trained and experienced staff members can disrupt the establishment’s operations, making it challenging to provide a seamless dining experience.
6.3 Cost: Visualize a small, family-owned restaurant with a limited budget. It recognizes the importance of training but struggles to allocate financial resources for comprehensive lifelong learning initiatives. Training programs can be expensive, involving costs such as hiring professional trainers, developing customized materials, and creating hands-on training experiences. The restaurant’s financial limitations may force it to opt for more cost-effective, generic training solutions or limit access to educational opportunities for its employees. This can hinder skill development and ultimately affect the restaurant’s competitiveness in a dynamic industry.
6.4 Resistance to Change: Consider a group of long-term restaurant employees who have become accustomed to traditional practices and processes. Introducing new training methods and approaches can be met with resistance. Some employees may be skeptical or reluctant to embrace change, as they have grown comfortable with established routines. Their resistance can manifest as disengagement during training, making it challenging to instill new skills and knowledge. Overcoming this resistance requires effective change management and a supportive, motivating approach.
6.5 Language and Cultural Barriers: Picture a restaurant where the kitchen and front-of-house staff come from diverse cultural backgrounds. Some may have varying levels of language proficiency, and there may be differences in cultural norms and expectations. In such a setting, language and cultural barriers can impact training and communication. These barriers can result in misunderstandings, misinterpretations of training materials, and challenges in conveying the nuances of customer service and culinary techniques. In turn, this may affect the quality and consistency of service offered by the restaurant.
The challenges of implementing lifelong learning programs in the restaurant business are multifaceted and require thoughtful consideration and strategic solutions. Addressing time constraints may involve flexible training schedules or prioritizing off-peak times for education. To combat high turnover, employee retention strategies and incentives for continuous learning can be explored. When facing budget constraints, cost-effective training methods or seeking external funding sources may be considered. Overcoming resistance to change may necessitate effective change management practices and cultivating a culture of openness to new approaches. Finally, addressing language and cultural barriers may require language training and fostering cultural sensitivity among employees. By addressing these challenges, restaurants can better harness the power of lifelong learning for their employees and ultimately enhance the overall success of their businesses in this dynamic and competitive industry.
Section 7: Case Studies: Successful Lifelong Learning Initiatives:
To illustrate the effectiveness of lifelong learning initiatives in the restaurant business, we can examine case studies of successful implementations in renowned establishments.
Case Study 1: The Culinary Institute of America: The Culinary Institute of America (CIA) is a world-renowned culinary school that has been at the forefront of lifelong learning in the restaurant industry. The CIA offers a wide range of programs, from professional development for chefs to wine and beverage training. Their hands-on approach and industry connections ensure that graduates are well-prepared for the demands of the restaurant business.
Case Study 2: Starbucks: Starbucks, a global coffeehouse chain, is a prime example of a company that invests in lifelong learning for its employees. They provide comprehensive training in coffee preparation, customer service, and even offer tuition assistance for online degrees through Arizona State University. This commitment to learning has resulted in a highly skilled and motivated workforce.
Case Study 3: Noma: Noma, a renowned Michelin-starred restaurant in Copenhagen, Denmark, is known for its commitment to culinary innovation. The restaurant frequently closes for several months to retrain and experiment with new dishes and techniques. This dedication to lifelong learning has allowed Noma to maintain its status as a culinary pioneer.
Section 8: Future Trends in Lifelong Learning in the Restaurant Business:
The restaurant industry will continue to evolve, and so will the methods and focus of lifelong learning. Several emerging trends are expected to shape the future of training in the restaurant business:
8.1 Technology Integration: Augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) will become common tools for training, allowing employees to practice their skills in immersive, risk-free environments.
8.2 Sustainability Training: As sustainability becomes a growing concern, training programs will incorporate eco-friendly practices and waste reduction techniques.
8.3 Data-Driven Training: Restaurants will use data analytics to tailor training programs to the specific needs and preferences of employees, improving learning outcomes.
8.4 Remote and Online Training: Flexible and remote training options will become more prevalent, allowing employees to learn at their own pace and convenience.
8.5 Soft Skills Development: Training will increasingly focus on soft skills like emotional intelligence and adaptability, which are crucial in the customer service-oriented restaurant industry.
8.6 Customized Learning Paths: Restaurants will provide personalized learning paths for employees, helping them develop skills relevant to their roles and career aspirations.
With implementation of different educational programs and professional improvement of the employees need to achieve more positive effects:
- Improving of the service quality.
- Increase of collegiality and sense for team work and cooperation.
- Downsizing the conflicts between the employees.
- Reliving the stress and releasing the tension.
- Downsizing of employees fluctuations and missing from work.
- Work promotion which will bring lower costs.
- Preparation of employees for promotions.
- Increasing the employees self-confidence.
- Straightens to the professionalism.
- Improving to interpersonal relations in general and especially between the management and other employees.
- Decreasing the numbers of accident at the work place.
- Increasing the productivity.
- Improving the health care and hygiene.
- Decreasing of tiredness.
- Increasing the feeling for safety at work.
- Decreasing the need of surveillance and control.
- Better work environment (relaxed work environment).
- Decreasing the waste.
- Increasing the employees level of ethics and responsibility.
In conclusion, lifelong learning is a fundamental aspect of success in the restaurant business. It equips individuals and businesses with the knowledge, skills, and adaptability required to thrive in this dynamic and competitive industry. From general training to specialized programs, there are various approaches to education within the sector, and the role of educational institutions and training programs is vital in nurturing talent. While challenges exist, the benefits of lifelong learning in the restaurant business are extensive, leading to improved service, customer satisfaction, and a competitive edge. As the industry continues to evolve, embracing emerging trends and adapting training methods will be essential for sustained growth and innovation.
- Arduser, L. (2005). Restaurant training. APG.
- Baskette, M. (2001). The chef manager. Prentice Hall.
- (1997). Nacionalna Strategija za ekonomski razvoj na Republika Makedonija, Razvoj i modernizacija. Skopje.
- Nikolic, M., Malesevic, Dj., & Kilibarda, D. (1997). Personalni menadzment ugostiteljstva. Meridian.
- (2002). ServSafe. Educational Foundation.
- Rakicevik, G. (2004). Menadzment na covecki resursi vo turizam i ugostitelstvo. CNIR-FTU-Ohrid, MIKENA.
- Rakicevik, G., Miladinoski, S., & Strezoska, J. (2008). Lifelong learning in restaurant business. Tourism and Hospitality Management, 14(1), 105-114.
Former Student at Rajshahi University