“The term information system is a set of people, procedures and resources that collects, transforms and disseminates information in an organization.” James A.O’Brlen,
According to ‘University of Letbridge’ reviews, “An information system is a set of interrelated components that collects, manipulate store data & disseminate information and provide a feedback mechanism to monitor performance.”
Types of Information Systems:
i. Operational support systems: The systems which produce a variety of information product of internal and external use of the organizations is called operation support systems. It may be classified as –
- Transaction processing system (TPS): The process of transactions is performed in two ways – In batch processing & In real-time processing.
- Process control systems: In this system, decisions adjusting a physical production process are automatically made by computers.
- Enterprise collaboration systems: It helps us collaborate to communicate ideas, share resources, and coordinate work efforts.
ii. Management support systems: It includes the following sections –
- Management Information Systems (MIS): MIS provides a variety of information products that is reports, displays, etc.
- Decision Support Systems (DSS): They are interactive Computer-based information systems that use decision models and specialized databases to achieve the decisions making process management.
- Execute Information Systems (EIS): to provide selective information on the top management immediate to accomplish strategic objectives.
Components of information system:
1. People resources: People are required for the operation of all the systems. These people resources include – end-user & information specialist.
2. Hardware resources: Hardware resources include all physical devices and materials used in information processing like;
- Machines: Computers, video monitors, magnetic disk drives, printers, optical scanners, etc. &
- Media: Floppy disks, magnetic tapes, pen drives, CD-ROMs, etc.
3. Software resources: Software resources include all sets of information processing instructions, i.e. the detailed instruction that controls the operation of an information system processing. It includes programs & procedures.
4. Data resources: Data are the raw materials of the information systems. These are product descriptions, customer records, employee files, and databases, etc. Basically data resources of an information system are organized into –
- Databases: This holds process and organized data.
- Knowledge bases: This holds knowledge in a variety of forms.
- Model bases: This holds conceptual, mechanical & logical model
5. Networks resources: Network resources are communication media or processes. Network resources include;
- Communication Media: twisted pair cable, fiber optic cable, microwave, satellite system, etc. &
- Network support: modem, inter-network processor, internet browser, etc.
6. Information products or product resources: It includes managerial aspects, managerial reports, and business documents using text and graphic display, audio responses, and paper form.