## Number Building Process in DDC:

DDC stands for Dewey Decimal Classification, which is a system used for classifying books and other materials in libraries. The DDC system is based on a hierarchical structure, in which subjects are divided into broad categories, and then into increasingly specific subcategories. The number building process in DDC involves creating a unique call number for a specific item, based on its subject content.

Basic Structure of DDC: DDC mainly consists of ten main classes, every main class has ten divisions and every division has ten sections.

The ten main classes of DDC 23rd edition are:

000 – Computer science, information, and general works

100 – Philosophy and psychology

200 – Religion

300 – Social sciences

400 – Language

500 – Natural sciences and mathematics

600 – Technology (Applied sciences)

700 – Arts and recreation

800 – Literature

900 – History and Geography

Each main class is divided into ten divisions: (there are a hundred divisions in DDC)

000 – Computer science, information, and general works

010 – Bibliography

020 – Library and information sciences

030 – Encyclopedias and books of facts

040 – [Unassigned]

050 – Magazines, journals, and serials

060 – Associations, organizations, and museums

070 – News media, journalism, and publishing

080 – Quotations

090 – Manuscripts and rare books

Each division is divided into ten sections: There are a thousand sections in DDC.

800 – Literature

820 – English and Old English literature

821 – English poetry

822 – English drama

823 – English fiction

824 – English essays

825 – English speeches

826 – English letters

827 – English satire and humor

828 – English miscellaneous writings

829 – Old English (Anglo-Saxon) literature

Number Building Process in DDC: The number building process by using inherent rules in the six tables of DDC.

Table-1: Standard Subdivision:

• Rule-1: General rule: Ordinarily, it always attached to subjects
• First, comes the main class
• and then standard subdivision from table-1
• The accumulation of those two ends up with the desired number.

Example-1: Dictionary of Physics:

 Main Class Physics 530 Standard Subdivision Dictionary -3 Desired Number 530.3

Example-2: History of Political Science:

 Main Class Political Science 320 Standard Subdivision History -9 Desired Number 320.9

According to the rule of DDC 23rd Edition, our desired number is 320.9 but according to the schedule, our desired number is 320.09.

• Rule-2: (with Political Period): when it comes to historical period-
• First, comes the main class
• Then the range of historical periods followed by the main class.
• Need to write the given instruction
• Then the base number
• and last the given period from table-1
• End up with the desired number.

Example: Economic Condition in 2013:

 Main Class Economic Situation & Condition 330.9 Historical Periods 330.901-905

(Add to base number 330.90 the following -090 in notations 0901-0905 from table-1)

 Base Number 330.9 Periods 2013 -90512 Desired Number 330.909

Table-2: Areas:

• Rule-1: General rule:
• First, comes the main class
• Then the number of the main class, in specific continents, countries, and localities in the modern world
• then the table of instruction
• Base number
• At last the area notation from table-2

Example: Higher Education in Australia:

 Main Class Higher Education 378

Higher Education in specific continents, countries, and localities in the modern world 378.4-.9

(Add to base number 378 notations 3-9 from table-2)

 Base Number 378 Area Australia -94 Desired Number 378.94
• Rule-2: when there is no area table in the main class, it needs to add “as for instruction -09” with the main class.

Example: Family Planning in Uganda:

 Main Class Family Planning/Birth Control 363.96 As for instruction -9 Area Uganda -6761 Desired Number 363.961
• Rule-3: when it comes to foreign relations and if the country is the motherland then;
• First, comes the main class
• Then it comes to the motherland number
• At last, it needs to write other country number

Example: Foreign Relation between Bangladesh & India:

 Main Class Foreign/International Relations 327

Foreign Relation of specific continents, countries, localities           327.3 – .9

(Add to base number 327 notations 3-9 from table-2; then for the relation between that add “0” to the result and notation 1-9 from table-2)

 Base Number 327 Area Bangladesh -5492 As for Instruction 0 Area India -54 Desired Number 327.549
• Rule-4: when it comes to foreign relations and if two countries are foreign countries then;
• First, comes the main class
• Then it comes lower notation from the two countries
• At last, it needs to write other country number

Example: Foreign Relation between Japan & Korea:

 Main Class Foreign/International Relations 327

Foreign Relation of specific continents, countries, localities           327.3 – .9

(Add to base number 327 notations 3-9 from table-2)

 Base Number 327 Area Korea -519 As for Instruction 0 Area Japan -52 Desired Number 327. 519052
• Rule-5: when one country helps another country then;
• First, comes the main class
• Then it comes which country to help
• At last, it needs to write the country number that takes the help

Example: American Economic Aid to Bangladesh:

 Main Class Economic/Foreign Aid 338.91

International assistance by specific jurisdictions and groups of jurisdictions in specific continents, countries, and localities                                      338.913 – .919

(Add to base number 338.91 notation 3-9 from table-2)

 Base Number 338.91 Area USA -73 As for Instruction 0 Area Bangladesh -5492 Desired Number 338.917
• Rule-6: In the migration from one country to another country then;
• First, comes the main class
• Then it comes which country to go
• At last, it needs to write the number from which country

Example: Migration from Seria to Germany:

 Main Class Migration 304.8 Migration 304.83 – .89

(Add to base number 304.8 notation 3-9 from table-2; then add “0” and to the result and notation from table-2)

 Base Number 304.8 Area Germany -43 As for Instruction 0 Area Seria -5694 Desired Number 304.843
• Rule-7: In Emigration from one country to another country then;
• First, comes the main class
• Then it comes to write the number from which country
• Add “-09” (if there is no instruction)
• At last, it needs to write which country to go

Example: Emigration from India to Canada:

 Main Class Emigration 325.2

Emigration from specific continents, countries, and localities              325.23 – .29

(Add to base number 325.2 notation 3-9 from table-2)

 Base Number 325.2 Area India -54 As for Instruction -09 Area Canada -71 Desired Number 325.2 540971
• Rule-8: In Colonization;
• First, comes the main class
• Then it comes which country stands colony in other country
• As for Instruction “-09” (if there is no instruction)
• At last, it comes to write other country number.

Example: Colonization by the USA to Afghanistan:

 Main Class Colonization 325.3

Colonization by specific continents, countries, and localities                325.33 – .39

(Add to base number 325.3 notations 3-9 from table-2)

 Base Number 325.3 Area USA -73 As for Instruction -9 Area Afghanistan -581 Desired Number 325.373

Table-3: Subdivision of Individual Literature:

• Rule-1: General rule:
• First, comes the main class
• Then come to the standard Subdivision of Individual Literature (SIL)

Example: Bengali Drama:

 Main Class Bengali Literature 891.44 SIL Drama -1 Desired Number 891.441
• Rule-2: When it comes to period, then;
• First, comes the main class
• Then comes the standard subdivision of individual literature (SIL)
• Period from table-2

Example: Bengali Poetry in the 21st Century:

 Main Class Bengali Literature 891.44 SIL Drama -1 Period 21st Century 72 Desired Number 891.442

Table-4: Subdivision of Individual Language:

• Rule:
• First, comes the main class
• Then comes the standard Subdivision of Individual Language (SIL)

Example-1: Bengali Dictionary:

 Main Class Bengali Language 491.44 SIL Dictionary -3 Desired Number 491.443

Example-2: German Pronunciation:

 Main Class German Language 430 SIL Pronunciation -152 Desired Number 431.52

Table-5: Ethnic and National Group:

• Rule:
• First, comes the main class
• As for Instruction (-089)
• Nationality

Example: Language of Bengalis:

 Main Class Language 400 As for Instruction -89 Nationality Bengali 9144 Desired Number 408.991

Table-6: Language:

• Rule-1:
• First, comes the main class
• Write down the given Instruction
• Base Number
• And Last of all add language

Example: Korean translation into Bengali:

 Main Class Korean translation 297.123

(Add to base number 297.1225 notation 1-9 from table-6)

 Base Number 297.123 Language Bengali -9144 Desired Number 297.123
• Rule-2: In the case of two languages, then;
• First, comes the less know language as the main class
• Then comes the standard subdivision of individual language (SIL) from table-4
• And last, known language add as language

Example: English to Bengali Dictionary:

 Main Class English Language 420 SIL Dictionary -3 Language Bengali -9144 Desired Number 423.914
• Rule-3: If both languages are less known then the language number with greater will be the main class and another will be language.

Example: English to French Dictionary:

 Main Class French Language 440 SIL Dictionary -3 Language English -21 Desired Number 443.21
• Rule-4: If one language influences another language, in this case;
• The language that influences the other, will be the main class
• As for instruction (-175)
• And last of all, language

Example: Hindi Influence on Bengali:

 Main Class Hindi Language 491.43 As for Instruction -175 Language Bengali -9144 Desired Number 491.432

It is apparent that the Number Building Process is a critical component of the DDC system and plays a vital role in the organization and retrieval of information in libraries. Its hierarchical structure and careful construction provide a powerful framework for effective information management and retrieval.