Important Contributions of Codes in the Development of Modern Catalogue System:
Based on historical development studies, the development of modern catalogues and cataloguing codes, especially with respect to the physical form of catalogues, have highlighted in various elements and components as the most important concept in the development of modern cataloguing systems centred on the form of the catalogue and the nature of the bibliographic rights, Rahmatullah Fattai (1997) highlights many elements and elements that have made important contributions to the development of the modern cataloguing system. In the rest of this article, we are going to show some of the important contributions of codes in the development of modern catalogue system.
- The Alphabetical Catalogue:
The classified catalogue of the early nineteenth century gradually gave alphabetical catalogue, particularly the dictionary catalogue, which has been one of the most popular forms of the catalogue throughout the twentieth century. The development of cataloguing rules in the Anglo-American context for choice and form of entry has been influenced by this type of catalogue.
- Objective and Functions of the Catalogue:
The principles on which modern cataloguing codes have been formulated have developed in accordance with the objectives and functions of the catalogue. The older Inventory function of the catalogue evolved into a finding function in the early nineteenth century and later also included an assembling function (Collocation of materials) in Cutter’s Rules and afterwards. Provisions for the choice of entry in cataloguing codes are based on the objectives and functions of the catalogue and how they should be discharged (Author, title and subject).
- The concept of work:
The controversial concept of ‘work’, as opposed to the concept of ‘book’, has had a significant influence on other concepts and principles in descriptive cataloguing. By giving priority to one concept, other concepts such as the concept of authorship, choice and form of entries and uniform titles are influenced. Inconsistencies were present in some cataloguing codes due to the confusion between ‘work’ and ‘book’ till the development of the conceptual model “FRBR” In FRBR the key object of interest (work/’book) to users is identified as product entity dealing with intellectual or artistic activities. Product entities have been described as “work, expression, manifestation, and item”
- The Concept of the Entry:
As the most important means of approaching surrogates of library materials, the concept of entry (the bibliographic record of an item) has become fixed in bibliographic practice. Thus, a significant portion of any cataloguing mole is devoted to rules for the construction of entries, discuss constitutes the entry and the choice of entry words and access points (i.e., main and added entries) as well as the form of entry words (headings). Thus, this concept implies the significant notion that there is more than one approach for finding an item in a catalogue.
4.1 The Concept of the Main Entry:
The question of determining principal responsibility, i.e., the concept of main entry under which the complete catalogue record of an item is entered, has been one of the most important themes in Anglo-American cataloguing codes. With the advent of online catalogues, the value of the main entry has been challenged.
4.2 Number of Access Points Per-work and Reference Structure of the Catalogue:
As the medium through which the bibliographic record is accessible to the user and the technology of catalogue production has developed from the book catalogue to the card catalogue to the computerized there has been more potential for increasing the number of access points by which the complete record is accessible. The author, main entry catalogue, with references, that and Jewett found to be the most usable and reasonable eventually evolved into the dictionary catalogue. Development in the application of main and added entries is an indication of better, more flexible and more comprehensive ways of access to bibliographic information.
- The Concept of the Authorship:
This concept is one of the most important organizing (as well as identifying) elements in catalogues and bibliographic lists. A considerable portion of most codes has been devoted to the concept of authorship and to addressing its numerous conditions and problems. Due to the various conditions and complexities of attribution (for example, in the case of multimedia) what constitutes authorship ill cataloguing (the originator or the producer?) was a controversial issue with no satisfactory and comprehensive definition having been established till the development of the standard “RDA”. In RDA authorship is exhibited as the creator. The creator(s) of the products of artistic or intellectual activity, according to Functional Requirements for Authority Data (FRAD) has been grouped into three: person, family and corporate body.
5.1 Corporate Authorship to Corporate Body:
Throughout the evolution of types of authorship, the term has been extended to person and family in FRBR other than writers of works such as editors, compilers of collections, artists, photographers, cartographers and composers of music. There have, however, been changed in the last two decades so that editors and compilers no longer have the same authorship status as previously. In FRBR (Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records) Person is defined as An individual or a persona or identity established or adopted by an individual or group family is defined as two or more persons related by birth, marriage, adoption, civil union, or similar legal status, or who otherwise present themselves as a family.
5.2 Person and Family:
It was the Anglo-American tradition that extended the concept of authorship to corporate bodies. The concept, though sometimes controversial in definition, was retained for more than a century through the work of Jewett, Cutter, AA (1908), ALA (1941),.ALA (1949), ICCP (1961), and AACR1 (1967). Although not completely agreed upon, the concept was included in ICCP. The concept has since lost some of its force and, in AACR2 (1978), the tern ‘corporate authorship’ has been changed to ‘corporate responsibility’ and ‘Corporate Body’ in FRBR defined as An organization or group of persons and/or organization identified by particular acting as a unit.
- Forms of Heading:
A major portion of each cataloguing code is concerned with the form of the name chosen as the heading. This has been a significant contribution, in most codes over the past one hundred and fifty years, towards the achievement of uniformity in bibliographic description and access. In most modern cataloguing codes, it is suggested that a single form of the name (i.e., uniform headings) be used for all the works of an author. Uniform titles are another approach to bringing uniformity in the treatment of the various manifestations of a work.
- The Principle of the Standardization:
A major aim of modern cataloguing codes has been the achievement of standardization in bibliographic information. This concept has been embodied in different codes in the provision of rules tor transcription of cataloguing data from sources (e.g., title pages or chief source of information), standardization of bibliographic description, ISBDs), and uniform rules for different types of material. Has evolved from an internal uniformity within individual catalogues into an international context. Later on, bibliographic data has been assessed using the entity-relationship model (FRBR). The model is complete with these three parts: entities, relationships and attributes.
- Forms of Catalogue:
In relation to the impact Of the physical form Of the catalogue on the design Of cataloguing codes, it can be concluded that, in most cases, the form of the catalogue is either explicitly indicated in the code or can be implied from the predominant form of the catalogue at the time a code was being prepared. The form of the catalogue has been the evolution from book catalogue to the card and from computerized catalogue to online catalogue.