The database defines as an organized collection of interrelated data stored together without harmful or unnecessary redundancy to serve multiple applications. In the rest of this article, we are going to present parts of a database.

  • Information: Data that has been processed in such a way as to increase the knowledge of the person who uses the data.
  • Converting Data into Information:
    • Examples:
Name: ID Number
Imran 11131567
Rana 11146168
Asad 11101669
Aynul 15141670
Labib 11131671

These facts satisfied our definition of data but the data useless in their present form.

Result Sheet:

Course # ISLM-308, Database design, Year-2017-2018, Part: III

  • Data are row materials when data are used to sensible then it called information.
  • Actually data are useless.
  • The data are stored so that they are independent of programs that use the data; a common and controlled approach is used in adding new data and in modifying and retrieving existing data within the database.

Parts of a Database:

  • Bits: A bit is the smallest possible unite of data that a computer can recognize or use. To represent anything meaningful to convey information, the computer uses bits in groups.
  • Bytes: A group of 8 bits is called a byte, with one byte, the computer can represent one of 256 different symbols on characters because the 8, 1s & 0s in a byte can be combined in 256 different ways.
    • A = 0100 0001
    • a = 0110 0001
    • 0 = 0011 0000
    • . = 0010 1110


Bits―2 Bytes―256
Computer language language
  • Field: The smallest piece of meaningful information in a file is called field.  A field is generally used for a group of alphanumeric characters e.g. NAME, LOCALITY, CITY, COUNTRY, PIN-CODE, are all known as fields.
  • Record: The collection of related fields is called a record.
Name Locality City country Pin-Code
Rajib lakshmepur Jhenaidah Bangladesh 6300


  • File: File is the collection of all related records. In the above figure, the file contains the list of addresses of five friends.
Name Locality City country Pin-Code
Rajib lakshmepur Jhenaidah Bangladesh 6300
Raju jhekorgasa Jashore Bangladesh 7300
Imran motihar Rajshahi Bangladesh 8300
Sakib mohali Bogura Bangladesh 1200
Somrat Shavar Dhaka Bangladesh 3800
  • Database: Database is a collection of related files e.g. a student database may have admission file, address file, result fie, etc.